Importance  EXTC Engineering
List of importance for Second year  Sem 5 and Sem 6
Semester 5
MCA
CHP1:8051 MICROCONTROLLER
1. List and features of 8051 CHP2: ARCHITECTURE OF 8051 1. Draw and explain the architecture of 8051 2. Explain the internal memory organization of 8051 3. Explain SFRS of 8051 4. Explain i/p and o/p port structure of 8051 5. Explain the counter and timer structure of 8051 6. Explain interrupt structure of 8051 CHP3: INSTRUCTION SET OF 8051 1. Explain the following instruction of 8051: MUL AB,LCALL addr 16 2. Explain the bit level operation of 8051 3. Explain the following instruction of 8051:CJNE@Ri,#data,rel,DJNZ<byte>,<retaddr>CHP4: PROGRAMMING WITH 8051 1. WAP to store 8 bit data register 2. WAP to find 1’s complement of no. 3. WAP to unpack the packed BCD number 4. WAP to add block of data assuming the no to be 16 bit 5. WAP to count the no of 1’s and 0’s in given no 6. WAP to search a byte in an array 7. WAP to find maximum largest no in the array 8. Program to find the least/smallest no in the array 9. WAP to multiply two 8 bit no 10. WAP to divide two 8bit no 11. WAP to transfer a block N bytes from source to destination 12. WAP to add two 16 bit BCD nos. 13. Write assembly language program for 8051 to read the data from port lines P1.0 and P1.3 and P2.0 to P2.3 if data are equal then send FFH to port 3 else 00H CHP5: PROGRAMMING INPUT/OUTPUT, TIMERS AND INT SERVICE ROUTINE 1. Programs on timers CHP6: ASYNCHRONOUS SERIAL DATA COMMUNICATION 1. Exp synchronous and asynchronous serial communication 2. WAP for 8051 to transfer letter “B” serial at 1200 band 3. Write an assembly program to receive the data in serial form and send it out to port 2 in parallel form continuously 4. Write an assembly program to take the data form port 0 and transfer it serially continuously use serial interrupt and write the ISR CHP7: INTERFACING HEX KEYBOARD LED, LCD AND SEVEN SEG DISPLAY 1. Interface a 4x4 matrix keyboard to microcontroller 8051 2. WAP to display message on an 8bit 7seg LED display that is interfaces through port 1 and port 3 of 8051 3. Interface 16x2 LCD display to 8051 μc and display a single character “H” on it 4. How timer/counter of 8051 is used as counter? CHP8: INTERFACING ADCDAC RELAY AND STEPPER MOTOR 1. Explain interfacing ADC and DAC to μc51 2. Explain 8051 interfacing with stepper motor 
CHP9: INTERFACING MEMORY TO 8051

A.C
Chp1: BASICS of COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
1. EM spectrum and communication application(5m) 2. Need for modulation(5m) 3. Different types of modulation techniques(5m) 4. How does nonlinear mixing differ from linear mixing?(5m) 5. Advantages of digital communication(5m) 6. Difference: analog and Digital modulation(7m) 7. What is mixing? Explain linear and nonlinear mixing(5m) CHP2: NOISE 1. What is noise? Classify and explain different types of noise affecting communication(10m) 2. Explain harmonic distortion and intermodulation distortion(5m) 3. Sums based on thermal noise 4. Short note: Significance of signal to noise ratio(10m) 5. Define: Noise factor and noise figure(4m) 6. Explain noise figure measurement using method “diode noise generator”(10m) 7. Define equivalent noise temperature. Derive relation between noise factor and equivalent noise temperature(7m) 8. Derive an expression for total noise figure of a cascaded amplifier(10m) 9. Sums based on power gain, noise figure and noise temperature 10. Difference: Noise and Interference(4m) CHP3: AMPLITUDE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION 1. Explain amplitude modulation (AM) for more than one modulating signal in following terms. 2. Mathematical equation 3. AM waveform 4. AM amplitude and power spectrum 5. Modulation coefficient 6. Transmission power (10m) 7. Derive equation for total transmitted power, total side band power and single side band power f for AM wave and draw frequency spectrum for DSBFC(10m) 8. Derive an expression for calculating the modulation index from AM waveform(5m) 9. Sums based on calculation of modulation index, amplitude of modulated signal, total average power, power carried by sidebands, spectrum of modulated wave, modulating frequency 10. Why it is desirable to have modulation index of an AM wave as large as possible without modulation(5m) 11. In DSBFCAM when there are several modulating signals of different frequencies , how is modulation index and bandwidth determined?(5m) 12. Draw the circuit of single transistor emitter modulator and explain its operation with output waveforms. What are advantages of low level modulation(5m) 13. Explain collector modulation(5m) 14. Explain diagram and waveform of grid modulation class C amplifier used for AM generator(10m) 15. Explain: AM transmitter(6m) 16. Draw block diagram of low level modulator and high level modulator and distinguish between them(10m) 17. Compare low level and high level modulation(4m) 18. Explain working of AM detector with diagram. What is diagonal clipping? (6m) 19. Draw and explain working of a simple diode detector. Draw input and output waveforms if an over modulated waveform is given as input(8m) 20. Explain distortions in diode detector(5m) 21. Explain practical diode detector(5m) 22. Disadvantages of AM(5m) 23. Modulation index of AM should be lesser than 1. Explain (4m) CHP4: TYPES OF AM 1. Explain advantage and disadvantages of SSB over DSB and AM(6m) 2. Working of balanced modulator(8m) 3. Explain working of balanced ring modulator to generate DSBSC signal(7m) 4. Explain any one method of SSB signal generation(6m) 5. Explain phase shift method(6m) 6. Explain third method to generate SSB AM wave(10m) 7. Compare different single sideband filters(5m) 8. Explain ISB transmission(5m) 9. Explain VSB transmission(5m) 10. Compare systems
CHP5: ANGLE MODULATION 1. Define FM and derive expression for AM wave and modulation index(10m) 2. Compare wideband and narrowband FM(5m) 3. Define deviation sensitivity w.r.t FM and PM(2m) 4. Compare FM and PM(4m) 5. Compare FM and AM (5m) 6. Short note: phase modulation(5m) 7. How can a frequency modulator be converted to a phase modulator, a phase modulator to a frequency modulator? (4m) 8. Explain character diode FM modulator(6m) 9. List different methods of FM generation. Explain principle of reactance modulator. Why is direct modulation not preferred for FM generator(10m) 10. Explain how AFC system stabilize the local oscillator frequency? (6m) 11. Explain working of a cross by direct FM transmitter. What is purpose of AFC loop? (10m) 12. Explain indirect method of FM generation(10m) 13. Explain advantages and disadvantages of FM(8m) 14. Explain FM noise triangle(10m) 15. Explain preemphasis and deemphasis in FM(5m) 16. Explain working of balanced slope detector(5m) 17. Explain Foster Seeley Discriminator(10m)Explain ratio detector do not need amplitude limiters? Why? 
CHP6: AM RADIO RECIEVERS
1. Explain TRF receivers(8m) 2. Explain super heterodyne receivers(10m) 3. Waveforms at each stage and explain working of super heterodyne receivers(10m) 4. What are characteristics of radio receiver? (10m) 5. Define: sensitivity, fidelity and selectivity(6m) 6. What is double spotting? How does it arise and how it can be reduced(6m) 7. Explain tracking in AM receiver(5m) 8. Explain three point tracking(5m) 9. In AM, why IF is selected 455Khz(4m) 10. Explain AGC(10m) 11. Compare delayed AGC and simple AGC. Explain working of delayed AGC circuit(6m) 12. Explain Squlch circuit(6m) 13. Mention special requirement of SSB and ISB receiver(5m) 14. Explain working of coherent SSB receiver(5m) 15. Explain ISB receiver(6m) CHP7: FM RADIO RECIEVERS 1. Explain FM receiver. Why is an amplitude limiter required? (8m) 2. Explain use of limiter in a FM receiver(5m) 3. Explain how AFC will counteract a downward drift in frequency oscillator being stabilized(6m) 4. What is FM capture effect(10m) CHP8: SAMPLING TECHNIQUES 1. State and prove sampling theorem(10m) 2. Explain term aliasing and its effects. How it can be eliminated? (4m) 3. Sums on sampling theorem for low pass signal(4m) 4. State sampling theorem for bandpass signal. Compare ideal and practical sampling(10m) 5. Compare sampling techniques(10m) CHP9: ANALOG PULSE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION 1. State advantages and disadvantages of pulse modulation over continuous wave modulation(8m) 2. Explain generation of PAM and PWM(10m) 3. How PAM signal can be generated and demodulated(4m) 4. List advantages and disadvantages of PAM,PWM,PPM(4m) 5. Generation and detection of PWM(10m) 6. How is PPM generated and demodulated(6m) 7. Compare PAM,PWM,PPM techniques(8m) CHP10: DIGITAL PULSE MODULATION AND DEMODULATION 1. Advantages and disadvantages of digital transmission. Explain operation of single channel, simplex PCM transmission system(10m) 2. Explain PCM system(8m) 3. Explain term Quantization in detail(5m) 4. Explain Quantization error(5m) 5. State disadvantages of uniform Quantization in PCM. What are its remedy(4m) 6. Explain new uniform Quantization(5m) 7. Explain: Compnding (6m) 8. Explain DPCM operation(10m) 9. Explain delta modulation(5m) 10.Draw and explain delta modulation transmitter and receiver. What is slope overload distortion(10m) 11.What are errors in delta modulation(5m) 12.Write the disadvantages of delta modulation(5m) 13.Draw the block diagram of ADM and its working and write its advantages(10) 14.Compare DM,ADM,PCM,DPMC(5m) 15.What id ISI and state causes of ISI(5m) CHP11: MULTIPLEXING 1. Explain TDM and FDM(10m) 2. What is multiplexing in communication system. Explain TDM and PAM(5m) 3. Compare TDM and FDM(5m) 4. What is guard bands. When and where it is used(4m) 5. Explain two channel PCMTDM system(5m) 
RFMA
CHP1: BEHAVIOUR OF ACTIVE & PASSIVE COMPONENTS IN RF RANGE
1. Explain what is skin depth? (5m) 2. Sums based on skin depth, relative dielectric of insulation 3. Equivalent circuit of resistor, capacitor and inductor 4. Short note: Schottky contacts(5m) 5. Explain Schottky contact with help of energy band diagram for metal semiconductor contact 6. Plot frequency response of BJT 7. Explain in brief construction of RF FET CHP2: RF TRANSMISSION LINES 1. Short note: Microstrip transmission lines(5m) 2. Explain structure of Microstrip line along with design steps for Microstrip line(10m) 3. Compare Microstrip lines with striplines(5m) 4. Explain geometry of striplines(10m) CHP3: EM RADIATION HAZARDS 1. Explain source of EM radiation 2. Explain biological effects of EM radiation 3. Are exposures above guidelines harmful? CHP4: FILTER DESIGN 1. Explain filter parameters along with generic attenuation profile diagram 2. Short note: Butterworth filter 3. Sums based on filter designing 4. Explain Richard’s transformation and Kuroda’s identity. How they are used in realization of filter? 5. Explain ABCD parameter 6. State and prove Kuroda’s four identifiers CHP5: ANTENNA BASICS 1. Describe Maxwell’s equations in free space in integral form 2. Deduce wave equations for a plane wave in free space with help of Maxwell’s equations 3. Explain Retarded Vector Potential CHP6: INTRODUCTION TO ANTENNA 1. Draw and explain the transmissionline Therein equivalent of an antenna in transmitting and receiving mode 2. Explain how waves are detached from antenna 3. Explain different types of antennas CHP7: FUNDAMENTAL PARAMETERS OF ANTENNA 1. Define: Radiation pattern 2. Explain significance of radiation pattern of antenna 3. What do you mean by isotropic, unidirectional, and directional antenna. Draw radiation pattern and give example of each 4. What is antenna? Draw and explain all parts of radiation pattern of antenna 5. Define: Beam width 6. Sums based on HPBW, FNBW, radiation intensity 7. Explain concept of near field and far field regions 8. Discuss beam solid angle, beam efficiency 9. Short note: radiation intensity 10. Define: directivity, directive gain, effective area, effective aperture 11. Sums based on directivity, HPBW and elevation plane HPBW 12. Significance of directivity of antenna 13. Different types of antenna losses 14. Explain polarization matching factor 15. Describe relationship between effective area and directivity of any antenna 16. Explain Friss transmission formula 17. Sums based on Friss formula 18. State and give application of reciprocity theorem. Show that the transmitting and receiving radiation pattern of antenna are equal 19. Short note: radiation resistance, antenna resolution 20. Short note: Equivalent noise temperature of antenna CHP8: WIRE ANTENNAS 1. Derive expression for electric and magnetic fields in the field region of an infinitesimal dipole 2. Explain radiation pattern of short dipole 3. Derive expression for effective aperture of infinitesimal dipole antenna 4. Discuss voltage and current distribution of a halfwave dipole antenna. Can we say antenna is r resonant? 5. When a linear dipole is called an infinitesimal dipole or a small dipole or a finite length dipole? Compare infinitesimal dipole, small dipole and halfwave length dipole 6. Sums based on effective area, radiation resistance 7. What is folded dipole, applications on it 8. Explain working principle of a folded dipole antenna, radiation pattern and current distribution 9. Explain Ground Interference effect 
CHP9: ANTENNA ARRAYS
CHP10: LOOP ANTENNAS
CHP11: BROADBAND AND FREQUENCY INDEPENDENT ANTENNA
CHP12: MICROSTRIP ANTENNAS
CHP13: REFLECTOR AND HORN ANTENNA

I.C
CHP1: REVIEW OF OPAM
1. Draw the block diagram of typical OPAMP and explain function of each block 2. List ideal characteristics of OPAMP 3. Explain with o/p derivation the working of inverting adder circuit 4. Find the o/p voltage expression for average amplifier 5. Explain o/p derivation of noninverting adder circuit 6. Design OPAMP circuit that stimulates the relation Vo=2V,+5V2 with the minimum no. of resistor and OPAM 7. Find o/p voltage for difference Amplifier 8. Design the OPAMP circuit which can give the o/p Vo=2V14V2V3. CHP2: APPS OF OPAM 1. What is OPAM? 2. Analyze the current amplifier with grounded load 3. Find VN,VP & VO in circuit(numerical) 4. What is an instrumentation amplifier 5. Explain basic requirements of instrumentation amplifier 6. Draw circuit of 3 OPAM instrumentation amplifier and explain its working. Derive o/p voltage equation 7. State and explain important advantages of 3 OPAMP instrumentation amplifier 8. Design an instrumentation amplifier using 3OPAM to vary gain bet 0.5 to 500 9. Draw circuit of instrumentation amplifier with dual OPAM and find express of o/p voltage 10. Draw and explain current to voltage converter 11. Define voltage to current converter 12. Draw circuit of voltage to current converter for grounded load and derive the condition for it to act as an Vcc 13. Explain generalize impedance converter 14. Short note: log amplifier and antilog amplifier CHP3: ACTIVE FILTER 1. Compare active filter and passive filter 2. Explain the filter approximation 3. State the advantages of buttezworth approximation 4. Obtain the transfer function for KRC LPF and draw circuit 5. What is resonant gain 6. Design 2nd order bandpass KRC filter CHP4: NONLINEAR APPLICATION 1. Short note: comparator circuit 2. Application of comparator circuit. Explain 3. Explain inverting Schmitt trigger and find the expression for hysteresis width for it. Also mention transfer characteristics 4. Short note: Noninverting Schmitt trigger 5. Explain the operation of sample and hold circuit. Draw i/p and o/p waveforms 6. Write down the requirements(very high or very low) regarding the rise time, baise current, i/p impedance and the o/p impedance for 2 buffers and justify. 
CHP5: SPECIAL PURPOSE IC
CHP6: VOLTAGE REGULATORS

RSA
1. Define and explain moment generating function
2. Prove that if input LTI system is WSS the output is also WSS. What is ergodic process 3. Block diagram of single and multiple server queuing system 4. State and prove Chapman Kolmogorov equation 5. Write a note on birth and death queuing models 6. Explain strong law of large numbers and weak law of large numbers 7. State and prove Baye’s theorem 8. Properties of power spectral density 9. Short note: M/M/1/∞ queuing system 10. Short note: Markov chains 11. For an LTI system with stochastic input prove that autocorrelation of output is given by convolution of cross correlation and LTI system impulse response 
12. State and prove Central limit theorem
13. Properties of cross correlation 14. Properties of CDF, pdf and PMF 15. Explain the concept of conditional probability and properties of conditional probability 16. Explain: deterministic system, stochastic system and memoryless system 17. Explain Chebyshev’s inequality with suitable example 18. Short note: Poisson distribution 19. Explain random process. Define ensemble mean, auto correlation and auto covariance of the process in terms of indexed random variables in usual mathematical forms 20. Short note: Rayleigh distribution 21. Short note: Gaussian distributions 
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Semester 6
d.C  Importance

INSTRUCTIONS
The paper consist a mixture of both numerical and theory. Given below are the theory question whose concepts need to be done clearly to get marks on theory. This questions are also repeated more than once. 
DTSP  Importance

CCTN  Importance

INSTRUCTIONS
The paper contains only theory questions, be aware of all the long terms and different definitions some of the concepts are surely repeated and important. Given here are list of questions, concepts are really important and have the chances to be asked in the exams. For more details of question formations and concepts refer blueprints and Brainheaters Notes. 
O.S  Importance

INSTRUCTIONS
The paper consist of theory. Given here are the theory question whose concepts need to be done clearly. This questions are also repeated more than once. For better assumptions have a look on Blueprints and notes ! 
T.E importance

INSTRUCTIONS
T.E mainly deals with theory and the concepts based on display, color etc are asked. Given below are the list of questions and concepts important for exam. For more clear vision you can look blueprints and notes 
VLSI  ImporTance

INSTRUCTIONS
VLSI deals with logic and logics it is necessary to be clear with logic gates and its rules. Paper mainly contents theory and some of the logic expression sums. Given below are the list of questions whose concepts are important for the exams. 